8th Asia Pacific Conference on Exercise and Sports Science 2017
Name: José Alberto Ramos Duarte, MD, PhD
Position: Full Professor
Faculty/Office Address: Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa, 91
4200-450 Porto, Portugal
Dr. José Alberto Ramos Duarte is Full Professor of Physiology and has served as Head of the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Experimental Morphology at the Faculty of Sport, University of Porto. In addition, he has also served as Director of the doctoral program in Physiotherapy at the University of Porto. He is an Editor of the International Journal of Sports Medicine (Georg Thieme Verlag). He has had more than two hundred scientific manuscripts published in indexed peer-reviewed journals. Biological aging, skeletal muscle plasticity, pathophysiology of cachexia, and mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardioprotection, are the main research areas of interests at the moment.
Title of the talk: Prevention of skeletal muscle degeneration with age
Biological aging is defined as the progressive and irreversible decline of organic maximal functionality that parallels chronological age, predisposing subjects to the occurrence of pathologies and diseases with an increased risk of death. This inevitable phenomenon is influenced by genetic and environmental factors, being justified by a continuous loss of redundant components in organs and tissues. It is the biological redundancy which allows the existence of organic functional reserve, i.e., the ability to enhance functionality above the resting levels in order to face more exigent environmental conditions. This progressive loss of redundancy with chronological age shows an exponential evolution rate, a high inter-individual variability and, within each subject it is notorious that organs and systems are affected with different rates, being skeletal muscles one of the most affected systems. Indeed, the ability to perform physical work is severely compromised with advanced age, which results not only from the intrinsic loss of redundancy within skeletal muscle but also from the decayed redundancy of nervous system. Although the existence of different theories to explain biological aging, it is known that genetic factors mainly explain differences between species, being the differences between individuals of the same specie mostly explained by environmental factors. So, environmental factors linked with the individuals’ lifestyle, such the level of daily physical activity/exercise, have a decisive weight in the rate of redundancy loss and susceptibility to the occurrence of diseases, being noted that the most active behaviors are associated with a greater longevity, a higher independence and better quality of life in advanced ages. All these topics will be discussed in the presentation, giving emphasis to these environmental factors that potentially affects skeletal muscle aging and subjects’ lifespan.