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8th Asia Pacific Conference on Exercise and Sports Science 2017

Symposium Speaker 

Name: Govindasamy Balasekaran
Position: Associate Professor & Head of Physical Education and Sports Science

               Programme Director, Sport Science and Management          

Address: National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University
E-mail:    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Associate Professor Dr G. Balasekaran did his Post-Doctoral Fellowship in molecular genetics with a renowned genetics professor at the University of Pittsburgh, USA. At present he is an Associate Professor and is the Head of Physical Education and Sports Science, and Programme Director of the Sports Science and Management, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, in Singapore. Dr G. Balasekaran has published approximately 150 research papers, abstracts, proceedings papers and book chapters in mostly first rated journals and books. His research projects include physiological responses in exercise and adaptations to health and sports performance. The influence of genetic factors on exercise related outcomes are also investigated. Dr G. Balasekaran obtained his PhD from the University of Pittsburgh, USA and is a Fellow and certified Health/Fitness Director of the American College of Sports Medicine. As a keen runner and a former national competitor, he had represented Singapore in long distance running events and had won medals in various international meets. He had also qualified and raced in the prestigious National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) cross-country championships, USA.


Effectiveness of Aqua-Titanium Infused Compression Garment during Run Time Performances and AquaTitan Bracelet on Muscle Recovery after Fatiguing Exercise

Govindasamy Balasekaran,FACSM1, Dianna Thor1, Victor Visvasuresh Govindaswamy2

1 Physical Education and Sports Science, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616
2 Concordia University Chicago USA, 7400 Augusta St, River Forest, IL 60305, United States


Compression garments (CG) have shown possibilities at improving run time performances. Also, recovery is important to athletes’ success in performance and many use AquaTitan products during training for faster recovery after exercise. However, there has been a lack of studies on aqua-titanium infused compression garments (ATCG) on run time performances and AquaTitan bracelets on faster muscle recovery after exercise. Purpose: To investigate the following: 1) The effects of Phiten’s ATCG and on running performances in 50m and 200m outdoor track events, as well asthe maximal speed in 50m.2)The effect of Phiten’s Rakuwa S Cross Bracelet on 24-hour recovery of quadriceps muscles from exercise-induced fatigue.


Methods: Here are the following methods: 1) Eighteen students, 15 males (age: 23.20±1.86yrs, height: 173.01±6.58cm, weight: 67.00±5.21kg, percentage (%) body fat: 13.30±3.20) and 3 females (age: 21.00±1.00yrs, height: 156.23±2.89cm, weight: 50.63±4.44kg, % body fat: 22.10±3.21)volunteered for the randomized,double-blinded, counterbalanced study. Participants went through a submaximal discontinuous running protocol and an outdoor track session for the 50m and 200m sprint trials for both the ATCG and placebo CG (PCG). All sessions were conducted in the morning, with 10 days washout period between the two sets of CGs. Blood lactate was obtained using the finger prick method and measured at exercise intensities corresponding to increasing workload. The outdoor track sessions were conducted in an Olympic size race track and participants were given 15 minutes rest between each run trial. The 50m maximal speed (MS) was measured with a video camera and timing gates placed at specified intervals. 2) Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 23.87±1.55yrs, height: 174.09±5.06cm, weight: 68.69±9.7kg) participated in exercise trials conducted over four weeks. Exercise trials had three experimental conditions (EC): AquaTitan (AT), Placebo (PC) and Control (CC), with a four-day washout period between trials. Participants performed a pre test (PRE) before and a post test (P) after a fatiguing exercise (FE), which consisted of 100 repetitions of isokinetic contraction at 60o/s. Post-1 (P1) and Post-2 (P2) were conducted 5 minutes and 24 hours after FE respectively. Isometric peak torque and time-to-exhaustion were measured with an Isokinetic Dynamometer. The OMNI Resistance Exertion Scale (RES) was used to measure perceived exertion for all tests.Results: Here are the following results: 1)Significant results were shown between ATCG and PCG in the 200m (ATCG: 30.55±3.25sec vs. PCG: 31.23±3.71sec, p=0.02), maximal speed attained in the 50m (ATCG: 7.95±0.68m.s-1 vs. PCG: 7.78±0.59m.s-1, p=0.01). However,no significant difference was also observedbetween the two tights in the 50m run trial (ATCG: 7.13±0.49sec, PCG: 7.18±0.59sec, p=0.23), the distance of MS attained (ATCG: 35.91±5.61m, PCG: 35.70±5.24m, p=0.89) as well as lactate threshold (ATCG: 1.77±0.64 vs. PCG: 1.74±0.44, p=0.84). 2)Friedman test revealed no significant differences between EC for RPE, indicating maximal effort for MS: (AT: 8.91±0.29, PC: 8.58±0.28, CC: 8.76±0.27, p=0.38) and ME (AT: 9.27±0.25, PC: 9.33±0.23,CC: 9.31±0.22, p=0.75). Repeated Measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between PRE and P1 (MS: 244.09±6.98Nm vs. 178.11±6.65Nm, p<0.05; ME: 63.42±3.29sec vs. 40.42±2.23sec, p<0.05), and between P1 and P2 (MS: 178.11±10.55Nm vs. 241.78±10.78Nm, p<0.05; ME: 40.42±3.46sec vs. 61.67±5.77sec, p<0.05). No significant differences were found between PRE and P2 (MS: 244.09±6.98Nm, 241.78±10.78Nm, p=0.55; ME: 63.42±3.29sec, 61.67±5.77sec, p=0.31), and between EC:(MS: AT: 224.60±11.53Nm, PC: 221.89±9.23Nm, CC: 217.49±10.19Nm, p=0.44; ME: AT: 51.02±3.88sec, PC: 55.91±4.93sec, CC: 58.58±6.09sec, p=0.118).


Conclusion:1)Performance was significantly better in ATCG compared to PCG for 200m and MS at 50m, which seemed to suggest that ATCG is more effective on anaerobic glycolytic system. These could be attributed to the materials used in the ATCG at improving running economy and efficiency of lower limb movement. ATCG might have compression effects on the elevation levels of lactate in the muscles as opposed to releasing lactate into the blood which may increase with muscle contraction.2)Participants were able to recover within 24-hour after FE under all EC. Results suggest that the AquaTitan bracelet is similar to participants not using it and may not assist in faster 24-hour full recovery with better performance in MS and ME activities.Further investigation is required to determine the underlying factors for the better performance from the ATCG, as well as, determining the effectiveness of AquaTitan bracelets in faster muscle recovery..


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